Vitamin E - only $12.65
(400 mg/capsule, 100 capsules/bottle)
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Vitamin E (Tocopherol) is a powerful antioxidant which protects cell membranes and other fat-soluble parts of the body. Studies
suggest that supplementing with Vitamin E helps to prevent heart disease.1,2
Vitamin E appears to be the most effective supplement for slowing the progression of Alzheimer’s Disease. In a two-yeaind str double-bludy, those patients given a 2000 IU dose of Vitamin E daily were able to perform regular daily tasks for a longer time.3
Antioxidants, as a class, are an excellent method of dealing with buildup of LDL ("bad cholesterol") in the system. Vitamin E has been shown to prevent heart disease4, and to prevent LDL from causing further damage5.
Antioxidants, such as Vitamin C and Vitamin E, are an important part of the body’s defense against muscle damage from exercise. Strenuous exercise increases the body’s production of free radicals, which, in turn, can cause muscle damage which manifests as swollen or painful muscles. While exercise increases the body’s natural defense against free radicals, athletes who are doing intense training may benefit from the addition of antioxidant supplements to their diets.6
cataracts are extremely common, and happen with most people as they age A diet rich in antioxidants (Vitamin E and Vitamin C especially) may help prevent or delay the formation of cataracts, as oxidative damage appears to be a cause of their development.7
Low Vitamin E is also found in many diabetics.8 Taking a supplement appears to improve glucose tolerance in both diabetics9 and non-diabetics.10 A dose of approximately 900 IU daily, taken for at least three months, is generally needed before any benefits are seen. Vitamin E also may be effective in reducing glycosylation.11
Vitamin E can also help relieve and shrink fibrocystic breast lumps.
Vitamin E supplements have also been shown to help ease much of the pain of Fibromylagia.12
Vitamin E may also be effective in relieving menorrhagia. However, it has only been studied as a treatment for menorrhagia caused by IUD birth control devices.13
Vitamin E deficiencies are often found in hepatitis patients.14 High dose supplementation (1200 IU daily) appears to reduce liver damage in adult patients.15 This is by no means a foolproof preventive measure, however.16
In test tubes, Vitamin E appears to improve the effectiveness of the HIV-inhibiting drug AZT.17
Vitamin E deficiency leads to infertility in animals.18 Taken in a dose of 100 to 200 IU daily, it has been shown to increase fertility in humans.19
Since oxidative damage of the eye can cause macular degeneration, taking antioxidants may lower the disease’s occurrence.20 People with high levels of Vitamin C, Vitamin E, and Selenium appear to have a 70% lower risk of developing macular degeneration.21
Vitamin E appears to be helpful in the reduction of menopause symptoms.22 A dose of up to 1000 IU daily over the course of three months is suggested to see if supplementation will have any effect.23
Antioxidants may slow the rate of joint deterioration in osteoarthritis patients.24 Vitamin E in particular has been shown to reduce the symptoms of osteoarthritis.25,26
Regular Vitamin E supplements can help ease PMS symptoms, especially those relating to breast tenderness.27
Vitamin E has been shown to help improve the effects of retinopathy.28
When joints become inflamed, they often suffer a depletion of Vitamin E.29 Supplementation with this vitamin may help ease some of the symptoms of rheumatoid arthritis.30
Natural Sources: Egg Yolks, Leafy Green Vegetables, Nuts, seeds, Vegetable Oils, Wheat Germ Oil, Whole Grains.
Useful in treatment of: Alzheimer’s Disease, atherosclerosis, Athletics and Sports, cataracts, diabetes, Fibrocystic Breast Condition, Fibromyalgia, Heavy Menstruation, hepatitis, HIV Support, Female Infertility, Male Infertility, macular degeneration, menopause, osteoarthritis, Pre-Menstrual Syndrome, retinopathy, rheumatoid arthritis.
Recommended Dosage: 400 to 800 IU daily.
Contraindications: High supplementation should not be taken by women who are pregnant.
1Rimm EB, Stampfer MJ,
Ascherio A, et al. Vitamin E consumption and the risk of coronary heart disease
in men. N Engl J Med 1993;328:1450–56.
2Stampfer MJ, Hennekens CH, Manson JE, et al. Vitamin E consumption and the risk of coronary heart disease in women. N Engl J Med 1993;328:1444–49.
3Sano M, Ernesto C, Thomas RG, et al. A controlled trial of selegiline, alpha-tocopherol, or both as treatment for Alzheimer’s disease. N Engl J Med 1997;336:1216–22.
4Stephens NG, Parsons A, Schofield PM, et al. Randomised controlled trial of vitamin E in patients with coronary disease: Cambridge Heart Antioxidant Study (CHAOS). Lancet 1996;347:781–86.
5Belcher JD, Balla J, Balla G, et al. Vitamin E, LDL, and endothelium: Brief oral vitamin supplementation prevents oxidized LDL-mediated vascular injury in vitro. Arterioscler Thromb 1993;13:1779–89.
6Dekkers JC, van Doornen LJ, Kemper HC. The role of antioxidant vitamins and enzymes in the prevention of exercise-induced muscle damage. Sports Med 1996;21(3):213-38.
7Palmquist B, Phillipson B, Barr P. Nuclear cataract and myopia during hyperbaric oxygen therapy. Br J Ophthalmol 1984;68: 113-7.
8Salonen JT, Nyssonen K, Tuomainen T-P, et al. Increased risk of non-insulin dependent diabetes mellitus at low plasma vitamin E concentrations: a four year follow up study in men. BMJ 1995;311:1124–27.
9Paolisso G, D’Amore A, Giugliano D, et al. Pharmacologic doses of vitamin E improve insulin action in healthy subjects and non-insulin dependent diabetic patients. Am J Clin Nutr 1993;57:650–56.
10Paolisso G, Gambardella A, Galzerano D, et al. Antioxidants in adipose tissue and risk of myocardial infarction. Lancet 1994;343:596 [letter].
11Duntas L, Kemmer TP, Vorberg B, Scherbaum W. Administration of d-alpha-tocopherol in patients with insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus. Curr Ther Res 1996;57:682–90.
12Steinberg CL. The tocopherols (vitamin E) in the treatment of primary fibrositis. J Bone Joint Surg 1942;24:411–23.
13Dasgupta PR, Dutta S, Banerjee P, Majumdar S. Vitamin E (alpha tocopherol) in the management of menorrhagia associated with the use of intrauterine contraceptive devices (ICUD). Internat J Fertil 1983;28(1):55–6.
14von Herbay A, Stahl W, Niederau C, et al. Diminished plasma levels of vitamin E in patients with severe viral hepatitis. Free Radic Res 1996;25:461–66.
15Houglum K, Venkataramani A, Lyche K, Chojkier M. A pilot study of the effects of d-alpha-tocopherol on hepatic stellate cell activation in chronic hepatitis C. Gastroenterology 1997;113:1069–73.
16Knodell RG, Tate MA, Akl BF, Wilson JW. Vitamin C prophylaxis for posttransfusion hepatitis: lack of effect in a controlled trial. Am J Clin Nutr 1981;34:20–23.
17Gogu SR, et al. Increased therapeutic efficacy of zidovudine in combination with vitamin E. Biochem Biophys Res Commun 1989;165:401–407.
18Thiessen DD, et al. Vitamin E and sex behavior in mice. Nutr Metabol 1975;18:116–9.
19Bayer R. Treatment of infertility with vitamin E. Int J Fertil 1960;5:70–8.
20Mares-Perlman, J.A., et al. Serum antioxidants and age-related macular degeneration in a population-based case-control study. Archives of Ophthalmology, 113(12, 15): 18-23, December 1995.
21Eye Disease Case-Control Study Group. Antioxidant status and neovascular age-related macular degeneration. Arch Ophthalmol 1993:111:104–9.
22Perloff WH. Treatment of the menopause. Am J Obstet Gynecol 1949;58:684–94.
Gozan HA. The use of vitamin E in treatment of the menopause. NY State J Med 1952;52:1289.
23McAlindon TE, Jacques P, Azang Y. Do antioxidant micronutrients protect against the development and progression of knee osteoarthritis? Arthrit Rheum 1996;39:648–56.
24Blankenhorn G. Klinische Wirtsamkeit von Spondyvit (vitamin E) bei aktiverten arthronsen. Z Orthop 1986;124:340_3.
25Machtey I, Ouaknine L. Tocopherol in osteoarthritis: a controlled pilot study. J Am Geriatr Soc 1978;25(7):328–30.
26London RS, Sundaram GS, Murphy L, Goldstein PJ. The effect of alpha-tocopherol on premenstrual symptomatology: a double blind study. J Am Coll Nutr 1983;2(2):115–22.
27Runge P, Muller DP, McAllister J, et al. Oral vitamin E supplements can prevent the retinopathy of abetalipoproteinaemia. Br J Ophthalmol 1986;70:166–73.
28Crary EJ, McCarty MF. Potential clinical applications for high-dose nutritional antioxidants. Med Hypoth 1984;13:77–98.
29Fairburn K, Grootveld M, Ward RJ, et al. Alpha-tocopherol, lipids and lipoproteins in knee-joint synovial fluid and serum from patients with inflammatory joint disease. Clin Sci 1992;83:657–64.
30Scherak O, Kolarz G. Vitamin E and rheumatoid arthritis. Arthrit Rheum 1991;34:1205_6 [letter].
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